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Trends Ecol Evol. 2009 Jun;24(6):312-22. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2009.01.010. Epub 2009 Mar 25.

The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future.

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Climate Adaptation Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Cleveland, QLD 4163, Australia.


Human-induced stresses of overfishing, eutrophication, climate change, translocation and habitat modification appear to be promoting jellyfish (pelagic cnidarian and ctenophore) blooms to the detriment of other marine organisms. Mounting evidence suggests that the structure of pelagic ecosystems can change rapidly from one that is dominated by fish (that keep jellyfish in check through competition or predation) to a less desirable gelatinous state, with lasting ecological, economic and social consequences. Management actions needed to stop such changes require tactical coping strategies and longer-term preventative responses based on fundamental and targeted research on this understudied group.

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