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Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;54(2):124-8. doi: 10.1159/000209395. Epub 2009 Mar 26.

Energy and nutrient intakes during different phases of the menstrual cycle in females in the United Arab Emirates.

Author information

1
Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Evidence related to the influence of the menstrual cycle on energy and nutrient intakes is inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to investigate energy and nutrient intakes during different phases of the menstrual cycle in adult females in the United Arab Emirates.

METHODS:

Forty-three females, aged between 18 and 30 years, were recruited to the study. Subjects were not using oral contraceptive pills and experienced regular menstrual cycles. Food and beverage intake was recorded, using the estimated daily record method, for 2 days of each menstrual cycle phase (pre-menstrual, menstrual and post-menstrual). Energy and nutrient intakes were analysed using Diet5 for Windows.

RESULTS:

Mean energy intake was significantly lower in the menstrual phase compared to the pre-menstrual phase (p = 0.002), but not the post-menstrual phase. Intakes of macronutrients and micronutrients were higher in the pre-menstrual phase compared to the menstrual and post-menstrual phases. Intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat were significantly higher in the pre-menstrual phase than in the menstrual phase (p = 0.008, p = 0.001, p = 0.013, respectively). Similarly, intakes of vitamin C and B vitamins were significantly higher in the pre-menstrual phase than in the menstrual phase (p = 0.019, p = 0.05, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Energy and nutrient intakes varied during the different phases of the menstrual cycle. These results confirm the hypothesis that food intake differs between different phases of the menstrual cycle.

PMID:
19321940
DOI:
10.1159/000209395
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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