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Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 1;69(7):3140-7. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3738. Epub 2009 Mar 24.

Genome-wide impact of androgen receptor trapped clone-27 loss on androgen-regulated transcription in prostate cancer cells.

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Department of Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.


The androgen receptor (AR) directs diverse biological processes through interaction with coregulators such as AR trapped clone-27 (ART-27). Our results show that ART-27 is recruited to AR-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In addition, the effect of ART-27 on genome-wide transcription was examined. The studies indicate that loss of ART-27 enhances expression of many androgen-regulated genes, suggesting that ART-27 inhibits gene expression. Surprisingly, classes of genes that are up-regulated upon ART-27 depletion include regulators of DNA damage checkpoint and cell cycle progression, suggesting that ART-27 functions to keep expression levels of these genes low. Consistent with this idea, stable reduction of ART-27 by short-hairpin RNA enhances LNCaP cell proliferation compared with control cells. The effect of ART-27 loss was also examined in response to the antiandrogen bicalutamide. Unexpectedly, cells treated with ART-27 siRNA no longer exhibited gene repression in response to bicalutamide. To examine ART-27 loss in prostate cancer progression, immunohistochemistry was conducted on a tissue array containing samples from primary tumors of individuals who were clinically followed and later shown to have either recurrent or nonrecurrent disease. Comparison of ART-27 and AR staining indicated that nuclear ART-27 expression was lost in the majority of AR-positive recurrent prostate cancers. Our studies show that reduction of ART-27 protein levels in prostate cancer may facilitate antiandrogen-resistant disease.

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