Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009 Apr;12(2):170-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Mar 21.

Bacterial nucleotide-based second messengers.

Author information

Institut für Biologie - Mikrobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.


In all domains of life nucleotide-based second messengers transduce signals originating from changes in the environment or in intracellular conditions into appropriate cellular responses. In prokaryotes cyclic di-GMP has emerged as an important and ubiquitous second messenger regulating bacterial life-style transitions relevant for biofilm formation, virulence, and many other bacterial functions. This review describes similarities and differences in the architecture of the cAMP, (p)ppGpp, and c-di-GMP signaling systems and their underlying signaling principles. Moreover, recent advances in c-di-GMP-mediated signaling will be presented and the integration of c-di-GMP signaling with other nucleotide-based signaling systems will be discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center