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Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009 Jul 1;103(4):696-705. doi: 10.1002/bit.22282.

Directed self-immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on micro-patterned substrates via genetically fused metal-binding peptide.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.


Current biotechnological applications such as biosensors, protein arrays, and microchips require oriented immobilization of enzymes. The characteristics of recognition, self-assembly and ease of genetic manipulation make inorganic binding peptides an ideal molecular tool for site-specific enzyme immobilization. Herein, we demonstrate the utilization of gold binding peptide (GBP1) as a molecular linker genetically fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immobilized on gold substrate. Multiple tandem repeats (n = 5, 6, 7, 9) of gold binding peptide were fused to N-terminus of AP (nGBP1-AP) and the enzymes were expressed in E. coli cells. The binding and enzymatic activities of the bi-functional fusion constructs were analyzed using quartz crystal microbalance spectroscopy and biochemical assays. Among the multiple-repeat constructs, 5GBP1-AP displayed the best bi-functional activity and, therefore, was chosen for self-immobilization studies. Adsorption and assembly properties of the fusion enzyme, 5GBP1-AP, were studied via surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated self-immobilization of the bi-functional enzyme on micro-patterned substrates where genetically linked 5GBP1-AP displayed higher enzymatic activity per area compared to that of AP. Our results demonstrate the promising use of inorganic binding peptides as site-specific molecular linkers for oriented enzyme immobilization with retained activity. Directed assembly of proteins on solids using genetically fused specific inorganic-binding peptides has a potential utility in a wide range of biosensing and bioconversion processes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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