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J Nematol. 1976 Apr;8(2):159-68.

Chromonema heliothidis n. gen., n. sp. (Steinernematidae, Nematoda), a parasite of Heliothis zea (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera), and other insects.

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Department of Entonmlogy, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC27607, USA.


Chromonema heliothidis n. gen., n. sp. is described as an entomophilic nematode of Heliothis zea and other lepidopterous larvae; the diagnosis of the family Steinernermatidae is emended. In most morphological and host-parasite features, this nematode is similar to neoaplectanid nematodes; however, males are different in having a peloderan bursa and straight to slightly curved spicules. Although the infective-stage juveniles only give rise to hermaphrodites, the nematode is heterogonic, with both males and females being produced in the second generation. Parasitized hosts are brick-red in color and luminescent in the dark because of the association of a chromogenic, bioluminescent bacterium with the nematode. The nematode is capable of parasitizing a wide range of insects with lepidopterous larvae being most susceptible.


entomophilic nematode; morphology; taxonomy


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