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Mt Sinai J Med. 2009 Apr;76(2):163-72. doi: 10.1002/msj.20097.

Neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.


The neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury consist of a spectrum of somatic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The neuropsychiatric symptoms are divided into cognitive and behavioral presentations. In the literature, these neurobehavioral sequelae have been called postconcussive symptoms, postconcussive syndrome, and postconcussive disorder; however, the authors of this review do not use this terminology because the symptoms are not restricted to patients with concussion but instead can be found in all traumatic brain injury patients of all injury severities. The development of neurobehavioral sequelae after traumatic brain injury is a multifactorial process. The patient evaluation requires a multidisciplinary approach in order to delineate physiologic dysfunction and place deficits in the context of the patient's preinjury and postinjury psychiatric status. Consequently, the evaluation of the posttraumatic brain injury patient with neurobehavioral sequelae requires a carefully structured history and physical examination with an emphasis on neurological and psychiatric function. Adjunctive evaluations must be tailored to the patient with neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and neuropsychiatric testing. Maximized outcomes may be achieved by the performance of a careful and detailed assessment that places complaints within the context of the individual.

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