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Diabetologia. 2009 Jun;52(6):1122-32. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1317-8. Epub 2009 Mar 18.

Islet beta cell failure in the 60% pancreatectomised obese hyperlipidaemic Zucker fatty rat: severe dysfunction with altered glycerolipid metabolism without steatosis or a falling beta cell mass.

Author information

1
Molecular Nutrition Unit and the Montreal Diabetes Research Center, CR-CHUM, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:

The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat subjected to 60% pancreatectomy (Px) develops moderate diabetes by 3 weeks. We determined whether a progressive fall in beta cell mass and/or beta cell dysfunction contribute to beta cell failure in this type 2 diabetes model.

METHODS:

Partial (60%) or sham Px was performed in ZF and Zucker lean (ZL) rats. At 3 weeks post-surgery, beta cell mass and proliferation, proinsulin biosynthesis, pancreatic insulin content, insulin secretion, and islet glucose and lipid metabolism were measured.

RESULTS:

ZL-Px rats maintained normal glycaemia and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) despite incomplete recovery of beta cell mass possibly due to compensatory enhanced islet glucose metabolism and lipolysis. ZF-Px rats developed moderate hyperglycaemia (14 mmol/l), hypertriacylglycerolaemia and relative hypoinsulinaemia. Despite beta cell mass recovery and normal arginine-induced insulin secretion, GSIS and pancreatic insulin content were profoundly lowered in ZF-Px rats. Proinsulin biosynthesis was not reduced. Compensatory increases in islet glucose metabolism above those observed in ZF-Sham rats were not seen in ZF-Px rats. Triacylglycerol content was not increased in ZF-Px islets, possibly due to lipodetoxification by enhanced lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Fatty acid accumulation into monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol was increased in ZF-Px islets together with a 4.5-fold elevation in stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

Falling beta cell mass, reduced proinsulin biosynthesis and islet steatosis are not implicated in early beta cell failure and glucolipotoxicity in ZF-Px rats. Rather, severe beta cell dysfunction with a specific reduction in GSIS and marked depletion of beta cell insulin stores with altered lipid partitioning underlie beta cell failure in this animal model of type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
19294363
DOI:
10.1007/s00125-009-1317-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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