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Opt Express. 2009 Mar 16;17(6):4611-33.

Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses.

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JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.


The generation of attosecond-duration light pulses using the high-order harmonic generation process is a rapidly evolving area of research. In this work, we combine experimental measurements with careful numerical analysis, to demonstrate that even relatively long-duration, 15 fs, carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) unstabilized near-infrared (NIR) pulses can generate isolated attosecond extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses by the dynamically-changing phase matching conditions in a hollow-core waveguide geometry. The measurements are made using the laser-assisted photoelectric effect to cross-correlate the EUV pulse with the NIR pulse. A FROG CRAB analysis of the resulting traces (photoelectron signal versus photoelectron energy and EUV-NIR delay) is performed using a generalized projections (GP) algorithm, adapted for a wide-angle photoelectron detection geometry and non-CEP stabilized driving laser pulses. In addition, we performed direct FROG CRAB simulations under the same conditions. Such direct simulations allow more freedom to explore the effect of specific pulse parameters on FROG CRAB traces than is possible using the automated GP retrieval algorithm. Our analysis shows that an isolated pulse with duration of approximately 200 attoseconds can result from CEP unstabilized, high intensity approximately 15 fs multi-cycle driving pulses coupled into a hollow-core waveguide filled with low-pressure Argon gas. These are significantly longer driving pulses than used in other experimental implementations of isolated attosecond pulses.

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