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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun;94(6):1991-2001. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-2338. Epub 2009 Mar 17.

Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men.

Author information

1
Departments of Medicine, Division of Biokinesiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1200 North State Street, Room 6442, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. fsattler@usc.edu

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat.

OBJECTIVES:

We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle performance in older men.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

One hundred twenty-two community-dwelling men 70.8 +/- 4.2 yr of age with body mass index of 27.4 +/- 3.4 kg/m2, testosterone of 550 ng/dl or less, and IGF-I in lower adult tertile (< or =167 ng/dl) were randomized to receive transdermal testosterone (5 or 10 g/d) during a Leydig cell clamp plus GH (0, 3, or 5 microg/kg . d) for 16 wk.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscle performance, and safety tests were conducted.

RESULTS:

Total lean body mass increased (1.0 +/- 1.7 to 3.0 +/- 2.2 kg) as did appendicular lean tissue (0.4 +/- 1.4 to 1.5 +/- 1.3 kg), whereas total fat mass decreased by 0.4 +/- 0.9 to 2.3 +/- 1.7 kg as did trunk fat (0.5 +/- 0.9 to 1.5 +/- 1.0 kg) across the six treatment groups and by dose levels for each parameter (P < or = 0.0004 for linear trend). Composite maximum voluntary strength of upper and lower body muscles increased by 14 +/- 34 to 35 +/- 31% (P < 0.003 in the three highest dose groups) that correlated with changes in appendicular lean mass. Aerobic endurance increased in all six groups (average 96 +/- 137 sec longer). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased similarly in each group with mean increases of 12 +/- 14 and 8 +/- 8 mm Hg, respectively. Other predictable adverse events were modest and reversible.

CONCLUSIONS:

Supplemental testosterone produced significant gains in total and appendicular lean mass, muscle strength, and aerobic endurance with significant reductions in whole-body and trunk fat. Outcomes appeared to be further enhanced with GH supplementation.

PMID:
19293261
PMCID:
PMC2690426
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2008-2338
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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