Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Torture. 2008;18(2):69-76.

Chronic pain and PTSD: the Perpetual Avoidance Model and its treatment implications.

Author information

Treatment Center for Torture Victims, Berlin, Germany.


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain are frequently seen in the aftermath of a traumatic experience. Torture survivors have an increased risk to suffer from these two disorders. Although many studies report high comorbidity,there is still insufficient knowledge on the mechanisms of the development and maintenance of PTSD and chronic pain. After providing an overview of the current literature concerning the comorbidity of these two disorders, we will present the "Perpetual Avoidance Model" (PAM). This model provides an explanation of the reciprocal maintenance of both disorders and offers treatment implications.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center