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Diabetes Educ. 2009 May-Jun;35(3):422-7. doi: 10.1177/0145721709333267. Epub 2009 Mar 16.

Whole grain and legume acceptability among youths with type 1 diabetes.

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The Clinical & Population Health Research Division, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (Ms Gellar)
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland (Dr Rovner, Dr Nansel)



This pilot study investigated the acceptability of whole grain and legume foods in youths with type 1 diabetes and determined demographic and behavioral factors associated with their acceptability.


Youths with type 1 diabetes (7.0 to 16.9 years) were recruited during a diabetes camp and completed self-report measures of food acceptability, eating behaviors, and demographics. An overall acceptability score for whole grains and for legumes was calculated as the sum of foods in each category rated as either "tried and liked" or "not tried and willing to try." Correlations of whole grain and legume acceptability with demographic characteristics were examined.


One hundred twenty-eight youths participated (70% females, mean age 11.6 +/- 2.3 years). Whole grain foods with the highest acceptability were corn bread (85% tried/liked and 11% willing to try) and whole wheat bread (72% tried/liked and 3% willing to try). Total whole grain acceptability was negatively associated with days per week of fast food consumption (r = -0.21; P < .02) and living in an urban environment (r = -0.24; P < .01). Chili with beans (66% tried/liked and 8% willing to try) and baked beans (57% tried/liked and 19% willing to try) were the legume-containing foods with the highest acceptability. There were no significant associations between demographic factors and total legume acceptability.


These findings demonstrate the variability in acceptability among whole grains and legumes in youths with type 1 diabetes and the importance of addressing acceptability when counseling youths or designing nutrition interventions to improve consumption of these foods.

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