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J Nematol. 1990 Jan;22(1):101-5.

Cold Hardening of Meloidogyne hapla Second-stage Juveniles.


The effect of previous exposure to low temperatures on freezing tolerance was determined for second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla. Juveniles in 5% polyethylene glycol 20,000 were exposed to 0-24 C for 12-96 hours, and then freezing tolerance was assessed by freezing samples at -4 C for 24 hours, thawing, and determining survival. Freezing tolerance was inversely related to prefreeze temperatures of 4-24 C. Prefreeze exposure to 4 C resulted in fourfold greater freezing tolerance than did exposure to 24 C. Mortality occurred during prefreeze exposure to 0 C. Most of the increase in freezing tolerance at 4 C occurred during the first 12 hours. In soil, prefreeze exposure to 4 C resulted in greater freezing tolerance than did prefreeze exposure to 24 C.


Meloidogyne hapla; acclimation; cold hardening; cold tolerance; freezing tolerance


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