Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2009;4(3):e4829. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004829. Epub 2009 Mar 16.

Evidence that plasmid-borne botulinum neurotoxin type B genes are widespread among Clostridium botulinum serotype B strains.

Author information

Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Unit of Microorganisms and Food Technologies, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.



Plasmids that encode certain subtypes of the botulinum neurotoxin type B have recently been detected in some Clostridium botulinum strains. The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency with which plasmid carriage of the botulinum neurotoxin type B gene (bont/B) occurs in strains of C. botulinum type B, Ab, and A(B), and whether plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related.


PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism was employed to identify subtypes of the bont/B gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization with specific probes were performed to analyze the genomic location of the bont/B subtype genes. All five known bont/B subtype genes were detected among the strains; the most frequently detected subtype genes were bont/B1 and /B2. Surprisingly, the bont/B subtype gene was shown to be plasmid-borne in >50% of the total strains. The same bont/B subtype gene was associated with the chromosome in some strains, whereas it was associated with a plasmid in others. All five known bont/B subtype genes were in some cases found to reside on plasmids, though with varying frequency (e.g., most of the bont/B1 subtype genes were located on plasmids, whereas all but one of the bont/B2 subtypes were chromosomally-located). Three bivalent isolates carried both bont/A and /B genes on the same plasmid. The plasmids carrying the bont gene were five different sizes, ranging from approximately 55 kb to approximately 245 kb.


The unexpected finding of the widespread distribution of plasmids harboring the bont/B gene among C. botulinum serotype B strains provides a chance to examine their contribution to the dissemination of the bont genes among heterogeneous clostridia, with potential implications on issues related to pathogenesis and food safety.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center