Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Apr;7(4):263-73. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2109.

Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria.

Author information

Institut für Biologie-Mikrobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany.


On the stage of bacterial signal transduction and regulation, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has long played the part of Sleeping Beauty. c-di-GMP was first described in 1987, but only recently was it recognized that the enzymes that 'make and break' it are not only ubiquitous in the bacterial world, but are found in many species in huge numbers. As a key player in the decision between the motile planktonic and sedentary biofilm-associated bacterial 'lifestyles', c-di-GMP binds to an unprecedented range of effector components and controls diverse targets, including transcription, the activities of enzymes and larger cellular structures. This Review focuses on emerging principles of c-di-GMP signalling using selected systems in different bacteria as examples.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center