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Eur Heart J. 2009 May;30(9):1097-104. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp060. Epub 2009 Mar 12.

Predictors of left ventricular remodelling and failure in right ventricular pacing in the young.

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Kardiocentrum and Cardiovascular Research Center, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.



To identify risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pacing in the young. methods and results: Left ventricular function was evaluated in 82 paediatric patients with either non-surgical (n = 41) or surgical (n= 41) complete atrioventricular block who have been 100% RV paced for a mean period of 7.4 years. Left ventricular shortening fraction (SF) decreased from a median (range) of 39 (24-62)% prior to implantation to 32 (8-49)% at last follow-up (P < 0.05). Prevalence of a combination of LV dilatation (LV end-diastolic diameter >+2z-values) and dysfunction (SF < 0.26) was found to increase from 1.3% prior to pacemaker implantation to 13.4% (11/82 patients) at last follow-up (P = 0.01). Ten of these 11 patients had progressive LV remodelling and 8 of 11 were symptomatic. The only significant risk factor for the development of LV dilatation and dysfunction was the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing (OR = 14.3, P < 0.001). Other pre-implantation demographic, diagnostic, and haemodynamic factors including block aetiology, pacing variables, and pacing duration did not show independent significance.


Right ventricular pacing leads to pathologic LV remodelling in a significant proportion of paediatric patients. The major independent risk factor is the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing, which should be avoided whenever possible.

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