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Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2009 May;24(4):315-26. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.01.011. Epub 2009 Mar 13.

ESB Clinical Biomechanics Award 2008: Complete data of total knee replacement loading for level walking and stair climbing measured in vivo with a follow-up of 6-10 months.

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1
Julius Wolff Institut, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. bernd.heinlein@gmx.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Detailed information about the loading of the knee joint is required for various investigations in total knee replacement. Up to now, gait analysis plus analytical musculo-skeletal models were used to calculate the forces and moments acting in the knee joint. Currently, all experimental and numerical pre-clinical tests rely on these indirect measurements which have limitations. The validation of these methods requires in vivo data; therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide in vivo loading data of the knee joint.

METHODS:

A custom-made telemetric tibial tray was used to measure the three forces and three moments acting in the implant. This prosthesis was implanted into two subjects and measurements were obtained for a follow-up of 6 and 10 months, respectively. Subjects performed level walking and going up and down stairs using a self-selected comfortable speed. The subjects' activities were captured simultaneously with the load data on a digital video tape. Customized software enabled the display of all information in one video sequence.

FINDINGS:

The highest mean values of the peak load components from the two subjects were as follows: during level walking the forces were 276%BW (percent body weight) in axial direction, 21%BW (medio-lateral), and 29%BW (antero-posterior). The moments were 1.8%BW*m in the sagittal plane, 4.3%BW*m (frontal plane) and 1.0%BW*m (transversal plane). During stair climbing the axial force increased to 306%BW, while the shear forces changed only slightly. The sagittal plane moment increased to 2.4%BW*m, while the frontal and transversal plane moments decreased slightly. Stair descending produced the highest forces of 352%BW (axial), 35%BW (medio-lateral), and 36%BW (antero-posterior). The sagittal and frontal plane moments increased to 2.8%BW*m and 4.6%BW*m, respectively, while the transversal plane moment changed only slightly.

INTERPRETATION:

Using the data obtained, mechanical simulators can be programmed according to realistic load profiles. Furthermore, musculo-skeletal models can be validated, which until now often lacked the ability to predict properly the non-sagittal load values, e.g. varus-valgus and internal-external moments.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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