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Virology. 2009 May 10;387(2):257-66. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.01.046. Epub 2009 Mar 12.

Synergism and negative interference during co-infection of tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana with two bipartite begomoviruses.

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  • 1Departamento de Fitopatologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG, Brazil.


In Brazil, at least eight begomoviruses including Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV) and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) infect tomatoes. ToYSV symptoms in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana appear earlier and are more severe compared to those of ToRMV. We investigated the role of several factors in this differential adaptation. To analyze infection kinetics, a single leaf was inoculated and subsequently detached after different periods of time. Viral DNA accumulation was quantified in plants, viral replication was analyzed in protoplasts, and tissue tropism was determined by in situ hybridization. Results indicate that ToYSV establishes a systemic infection and reaches a higher concentration earlier than ToRMV in both hosts. ToRMV negatively interferes with ToYSV during the initial stages of infection, but once systemic infection is established this interference ceases. In N. benthamiana, ToYSV invades the mesophyll, while ToRMV is phloem-restricted. During dual infection in this host, ToYSV releases ToRMV from the phloem.

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