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Nat Rev Cancer. 2009 Apr;9(4):239-52. doi: 10.1038/nrc2618. Epub 2008 Mar 12.

Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis.

Author information

1
Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. joycej@mskcc.org

Abstract

Metastasis is a multistage process that requires cancer cells to escape from the primary tumour, survive in the circulation, seed at distant sites and grow. Each of these processes involves rate-limiting steps that are influenced by non-malignant cells of the tumour microenvironment. Many of these cells are derived from the bone marrow, particularly the myeloid lineage, and are recruited by cancer cells to enhance their survival, growth, invasion and dissemination. This Review describes experimental data demonstrating the role of the microenvironment in metastasis, identifies areas for future research and suggests possible new therapeutic avenues.

PMID:
19279573
PMCID:
PMC3251309
DOI:
10.1038/nrc2618
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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