Send to

Choose Destination
AIDS. 2009 Mar 27;23(6):661-72. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283269dfb.

Morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in vertically HIV-infected children and youth.

Author information

Saban Research Institute of Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.



To compare the distribution of lipid and glucose abnormalities and altered fat distribution among vertically HIV-infected patients and controls.


Cross-sectional multicenter study on HIV-infected (HIV-positive) patients, 7-24 years of age, stratified by Tanner stage and protease inhibitor use (protease inhibitor, n = 161 and non- protease inhibitor, n = 79) and seronegative controls (HIV-negative, n = 146).


Measurements included fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, anthropometry, and antiretroviral therapy and medical histories. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare distributions between HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups.


Both HIV-positive groups had long exposures to antiretroviral therapy. Protease inhibitor and nonprotease inhibitor groups had similar current CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA, but the protease inhibitor group had lower nadir CD4 cell count, higher peak HIV-1 RNA, and more advanced Centers for Disease Control disease stage. In adjusted analyses, both HIV-positive groups had significantly lower mean Z scores for height, weight, BMI, and total and limb fat than the HIV-negative group. Mean triglycerides were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lower in both HIV-positive groups relative to the HIV-negative group. The protease inhibitor group also had significantly higher mean total, low-density lipoprotein, and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mean fasting insulin was higher in both HIV-positive groups, and 2-h glucose and insulin were higher in the protease inhibitor group. Ritonavir was associated with increasing dyslipidemia and altered glucose metabolism.


In a large group of vertically HIV-infected children and youth with extensive antiretroviral therapy exposure, height, weight, and total and limb fat were lower than in controls. There was a high prevalence of lipid abnormalities among those on protease inhibitors and evidence of developing insulin resistance, factors that may accelerate lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center