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Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Mar;8(1):31-42. doi: 08.01/ijaai.3142.

Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Macedonians.

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Institute of Immunobiology and Human Genetics, University School of Medicine Ss. Kiril and Metodij, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.


The aim of this study was to examine the association of 22 cytokine gene polymorphism in Macedonians with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The sample of the population comprised of 301 normal respondents and 62 patients with COPD. Cytokine genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific priming (PCR-SSP). Positive (susceptible) association was found between patient with COPD and IL-1alpha -889/C allele; where as negative (protective) association among was found for the following alleles IL-1beta +3962/C; IL-12B -1188/A; IFNgamma +874/T; IL-2 -330/G; IL-4 -1098/G and IL-4-33/C. We found positive (susceptible) association between patients with COPD and following genotypes: IL4 -33/T:T; IFNgamma +874/A:A; IL-4 -1098/T:T ; IL-1alpha -889/C:C; IL-1beta +3962/C:T; IL-12B -1188/C:C; IL-4Ralpha +1902/G:G; IL-10 -1082/G:G; IL-2 -330/T:T; IL-4 -590/C:C; and IL-1alpha -889/C:T. Negative (protective) association between patients with COPD and following genotypes was found: IFNgamma +874/A:T; IL-4 -33/C:T; IL-4 -1098/G:T; IL-2 -330/G:T; IL-1beta +3962/C:T; IL-4 -590/C:T; IL-10 -1082/A:G; and IL-4 -33/C:C. Positive (susceptible) association between patients with COPD and following haplotypes was found: IL-4/TCT; IL-10/ATC; and IL-2/TG, and negative (protective) association was found between the patients with COPD and haplotypes for: IL-4/TTC; and IL-4/GCC. It could be concluded that several cytokine polymorphisms are positively (susceptible), or negatively (protective) associated with COPD in Macedonians.

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