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Diabetes. 2009 Jun;58(6):1342-9. doi: 10.2337/db08-0958. Epub 2009 Mar 10.

Exogenous glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide worsens post prandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), unlike glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, lacks glucose-lowering properties in patients with type 2 diabetes. We designed this study to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Twenty-two insulin-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes were given either synthetic human GIP (20 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or placebo (normal saline) over 180 min, starting with the first bite of a mixed meal (plus 1 g of acetaminophen) on two separate occasions. Frequent blood samples were obtained over 6 h to determine plasma GIP, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, glucagon, resistin, and acetaminophen levels.

RESULTS:

Compared with placebo, GIP induced an early postprandial increase in insulin levels. Intriguingly, GIP also induced an early postprandial augmentation in glucagon, a significant elevation in late postprandial glucose, and a decrease in late postprandial GLP-1 levels. Resistin and acetaminophen levels were comparable in both interventions. By immunocytochemistry, GIP receptors were present on human and mouse alpha-cells. In alphaTC1 cell line, GIP induced an increase in intracellular cAMP and glucagon secretion. CONCLUSIONS; GIP, given to achieve supraphysiological plasma levels, still had an early, short-lived insulinotropic effect in type 2 diabetes. However, with a concomitant increase in glucagon, the glucose-lowering effect was lost. GIP infusion further worsened hyperglycemia postprandially, most likely through its suppressive effect on GLP-1. These findings make it unlikely that GIP or GIP receptor agonists will be useful in treating the hyperglycemia of patients with type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
19276444
PMCID:
PMC2682676
DOI:
10.2337/db08-0958
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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