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Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 15;48(8):1129-37. doi: 10.1086/597471.

Frequency and significance of HIV infection among patients diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

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1
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73126-0901, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Case series of patients with a diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have reported different frequencies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; some series suggest that HIV infection may cause TTP.

METHODS:

We systematically reviewed all reports of HIV infection in case series of patients with TTP. We analyzed data from the Oklahoma TTP-HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome) Registry, an inception cohort of 362 consecutive patients, for 1989-2007.

RESULTS:

Nineteen case series reported the occurrence of HIV infection at the time of diagnosis of TTP in 0%-83% of patients; individual patient data were rarely described. The Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry determined the HIV status at the time of diagnosis of TTP in 351 (97%) of 362 patients. HIV infection was documented in 6 (1.84%; 95% CI, 0.68%-4.01%) of 326 adult patients (age, 26-51 years); follow-up data were complete for all 6 patients. The period prevalence of HIV infection among all adults in the Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry region for 1989-2007 was 0.30%. One patient had typical features of TTP with 5 relapses. Five patients had single episodes; in 4, the clinical features that had initially suggested the diagnosis of TTP were subsequently attributed to malignant hypertension (in 3 patients) and disseminated Kaposi sarcoma (in 1 patient).

CONCLUSIONS:

HIV infection, similar to other inflammatory conditions, may trigger acute episodes of TTP in susceptible patients. More commonly, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related disorders may mimic the clinical features of TTP. If the diagnosis of TTP is suggested in a patient with HIV infection, there should be careful evaluation for alternative diagnoses and cautious consideration of plasma exchange, the required treatment for TTP.

PMID:
19275493
DOI:
10.1086/597471
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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