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Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Aug;20(6):895-903. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9327-x. Epub 2009 Mar 10.

Cigarette smoking and risk of colorectal cancer among Norwegian women.

Author information

1
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Breivika, Tromsø N-9037 Norway. inger.gram@ism.uit.no

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still not established. In 2002, Norwegian women had the second highest incidence of CRC in the world. A large proportion of Norwegian women are ever smokers. We examined the association between cigarette smoking and CRC incidence among Norwegian women.

METHODS:

We followed 68,160 women, aged 30-69 years, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study who completed a questionnaire in 1996 or 1998 by linkages to national registers through 31 December 2005. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequently, we estimated the population attributable fraction.

RESULTS:

Altogether, 425 incident cases of primary, invasive CRC were identified. Ever smokers had a 20% increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.5), a 30% increased risk of colon (RR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.7), and a 10% increased risk of rectal (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.5) cancer compared to never smokers. The population attributable fraction was estimated to be 12% which indicated that approximately one in eight of the CRC cases could have been prevented at a population level.

CONCLUSION:

Our results support the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is a preventable cause of CRC among women.

PMID:
19274482
PMCID:
PMC2694321
DOI:
10.1007/s10552-009-9327-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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