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Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009 Jan 1;14:1099-115.

Failure of beta-cell adaptation in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from animal models.

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Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Department of Medicine, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.


The pancreatic beta-cell adapts to increased nutrient availability and insulin resistance by increasing its function and mass. These processes are orchestrated by signals derived from nutrient metabolism, hormones and cytokines. Their end-result is the regulation of insulin secretion and biosynthesis, and beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in beta-cell nutrient sensing and adaptation and the potential causes of beta-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate adequate beta-cell adaptation and the natural history of beta-cell failure is of utmost importance for the development of novel disease modifying treatments.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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