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J Korean Med Sci. 2009 Feb;24(1):69-76. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2009.24.1.69. Epub 2009 Feb 28.

Clinical features and mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4 genes in Korean patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by abnormal communication between the arteries and veins in the skin, mucosa, and various organs. HHT has been reported to show significant phenotypic variability and genetic heterogeneity with wide ethnic and geographic variations. Although mutations in the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes have been known to cause HHT for more than 10 yr, little is known about the clinical features or genetic background of Korean patients with HHT. In addition, mutations in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) are also seen in patients with the combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis and HHT. This study examined five Korean patients with the typical manifestations of HHT such as frequent epistaxis and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Direct sequencing of the ENG and ACVRL1 genes revealed one known mutation, ENG c.277C>T, in one patient and two novel mutations, ENG c.992-1G>C and ACVRL1 c.81dupT in two patients, respectively. The remaining two patients with negative results were screened for SMAD4 mutations as well as gross deletions of ENG and ACVRL1 using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification, but none was detected. Despite the small number of patients investigated, we firstly report Korean patients with genetically confirmed HHT, and show the genetic and allelic heterogeneity underlying HHT.


ACVRL1; ENG; Korean; Mutation; SMAD4; Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic

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