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J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009 May-Jun;16(3):300-4. doi: 10.1197/jamia.M2642. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Design and implementation of a medication reconciliation kiosk: the Automated Patient History Intake Device (APHID).

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MBI, Technology and Information Management, Department of Hospital Specialty Medicine, Mail Code P3 MED, Portland VA Medical Center, 3710 SW U.S. Veterans Hospital Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.


Errors associated with medication documentation account for a substantial fraction of preventable medical errors. Hence, the Joint Commission has called for the adoption of reconciliation strategies at all United States healthcare institutions. Although studies suggest that reconciliation tools can reduce errors, it remains unclear how best to implement systems and processes that are reliable and sensitive to clinical workflow. The authors designed a primary care process that supported reconciliation without compromising clinic efficiency. This manuscript describes the design and implementation of Automated Patient History Intake Device (APHID): ambulatory check-in kiosks that allow patients to review the names, dosage, frequency, and pictures of their medications before their appointment. Medication lists are retrieved from the electronic health record and patient updates are captured and reviewed by providers during the clinic session. Results from the roll-in phase indicate the device is easy for patients to use and integrates well with clinic workflow.

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