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Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 May;144(1):68-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2008.12.020. Epub 2009 Mar 3.

Prevalence of Candida species and potential risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis in Aligarh, India.

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Aligarh Muslim University, India.



The objectives were to determine the frequency of Candida species in women of different age groups as well as to suggest the criteria for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).


A prospective study of vulvovaginal candidiasis was carried out using laboratory diagnosis, with the estimation of vaginal pH and the direct microscopic and biochemical examination of vaginal discharge/secretions. Vaginal cultures for Candida species were collected from 1050 women with vulvovaginal symptoms.


Out of 1050 women, 215 (20.47%) were positive for Candida species. Of 215 women, 172 (80%) had pH within the normal range and 167 (77.67%) were showing yeast cells and mycelia on direct microscopic examination. Candida albicans accounted for 46.9% of cases, Candida glabrata 36.7%, Candida parapsilosis 10.2%, Candida tropicalis 2.8%, Candida krusei 1.4%, and Candida kiefer 1.9%. The frequency of culture positivity was related to pregnancy (P<0.001), an increase in parity (P<0.001), and use of oral contraceptives (P<0.001) and antibiotics (P<0.001). The most common signs and symptoms in 215 women with positive cultures were pruritus with or without vaginal discharge and vaginal erythema.


Our study suggests that vulvovaginal candidiasis can only be diagnosed by using clinical criteria in correlation with vulvovaginal symptoms and Candida cultures.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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