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Neuropsychology. 2009 Mar;23(2):168-77. doi: 10.1037/a0014186.

Characterizing multiple memory deficits and their relation to everyday functioning in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

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Department of Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4820, USA.


The authors evaluated multiple memory processes and explored their contributions to everyday functional limitations in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants included individuals with amnestic MCI, nonamnestic MCI, and healthy older adults. As expected, the amnestic MCI group performed more poorly than the control and nonamnestic MCI groups on a content memory measure. Both MCI groups, however, performed more poorly than controls on the noncontent memory measures of prospective memory, temporal order memory, and source memory. Informants also reported that the MCI groups were experiencing greater difficulty than controls completing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Noncontent memory measures were found to make an independent contribution to IADL performances over and above that of content memory. These findings demonstrate that impairments in memory beyond the traditionally assessed content memory are present in individuals with amnestic MCI and with nonamnestic MCI. The results further show that these noncontent memory processes, which have been linked with executive functioning, play a role in supporting IADLs.

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