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Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Sep;20(7):1129-38. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9317-z. Epub 2009 Mar 1.

Incidence trends of invasive cervical cancer in the United States by combined race and ethnicity.

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Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106-5065, USA.



To better understand national patterns of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence by race and ethnicity in order to develop appropriate ICC prevention policies.


Age-adjusted and age-specific ICC incidence rates were calculated by combined race/ethnicity, making distinct the Hispanic/all races category from three other Non-Hispanic (White, Black and other) racial categories.


There was a significant downward trend in ICC incidence during both time periods for every combination of race/ethnicity (p-value <0.05) except Hispanic/all races during 1995-1999. Non-Hispanic/Black and Hispanic/all races women had significantly higher incidence rates of ICC compared to Non-Hispanic/White women. ICC incidence peaked much earlier for Non-Hispanic/White women (35-44 years of age) compared to any other racial/ethnic group. Non-Hispanic (White, Black and other) women had lower rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared to Hispanic/all races women. Non-Hispanic/Black and Hispanic/all races women were more likely to be diagnosed at late stage or unstaged at diagnosis than Non-Hispanic/White women.


Although ICC incidence decreased significantly over the last 10 years, Black or Hispanic US populations continue to have the highest ICC incidence compared to Non-Hispanic/Whites, highlighting the need for improved health literacy and social support to ensure their equal access to ICC screening and HPV prevention including HPV vaccination.

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