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Vitam Horm. 2009;80:193-215. doi: 10.1016/S0083-6729(08)00608-0.

Compartmentalization and regulation of insulin signaling to GLUT4 by the cytoskeleton.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73126, USA.


One of the early events in the development of Type 2 diabetes appears to be an inhibition of insulin-mediated GLUT4 redistribution to the cell surface in tissues that express GLUT4. Understanding this process, and how it begins to breakdown in the development of insulin resistance is quite important as we face treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases. Over the past few years, and increasing number of laboratories have produced compelling data to demonstrate a role for both the actin and microtubule networks in the regulation of insulin-mediated GLUT4 redistribution to the cell surface. In this review, we explore this process from insulin-signal transduction to fusion of GLUT4 membrane vesicles, focusing on studies that have implicated a role for the cytoskeleton. We see from this body of work that both the actin network and the microtubule cytoskeleton play roles as targets of insulin action and effectors of insulin signaling leading to changes in GLUT4 redistribution to the cell surface and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

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