Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Mar;109(3):422-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.023.

Supplement use contributes to meeting recommended dietary intakes for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin C in four ethnicities of middle-aged and older Americans: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Author information

1
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. anbh@u.washington.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low intake of nutrients is associated with poor health outcomes. We examined the contribution of dietary supplementation to meeting recommended dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin C in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese-American participants ages 45 to 84 years. We also assessed the prevalence of intakes above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs).

METHODS:

At the baseline exam in 2000-2001, 2,938 men and 3,299 women completed food frequency questionnaires and provided information about dietary supplementation. We used relative risk regression to estimate the probability of meeting Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs) in supplement users vs nonusers and Fisher's exact tests to compare the proportion of those exceeding ULs between the two groups. RDAs, AIs, and ULs were defined by the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board's Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

RESULTS:

After adjustment for age and education, the relative risk of meeting RDAs or AIs in supplement-users vs nonusers ranged from 1.9 (1.6, 2.3) in white men to 5.7 (4.1, 8.0) in African-American women for calcium, from 2.5 (1.9, 3.3) in Hispanic men to 5.2 (2.4, 11.2) in Chinese men for magnesium, and from 1.4 (1.3, 1.5) in African-American women to 2.0 (1.7, 2.2) in Chinese men for vitamin C. The relative risks for meeting RDAs for calcium differed significantly by ethnicity (P<0.001) and sex (P<0.001), and by ethnicity for magnesium (P=0.01). The relative risk for each sex/ethnicity strata was close to 1 and did not reach statistical significance at alpha=.05 for potassium. For calcium, 15% of high-dose supplement users exceeded the UL compared with only 2.1% of nonusers. For vitamin C, the percentages were 6.6% and 0%, and for magnesium, 35.3% and 0% (P<0.001 for all).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although supplement use is associated with meeting DRI guidelines for calcium, vitamin C and magnesium, many adults are not meeting the DRI guidelines even with the help of dietary supplements, and the effect of supplementation can vary according to ethnicity and sex. However, supplementation was not significantly associated with meeting DRIs for potassium. Also, high-dose supplement use is associated with intakes above ULs for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin C.

PMID:
19248857
PMCID:
PMC2684701
DOI:
10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication type

MeSH terms

Substances

Grant support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center