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Am J Pathol. 2009 Apr;174(4):1149-53. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080958. Epub 2009 Feb 26.

IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon, France.


IDH1 encodes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, which participates in the citric acid cycle and was recently reported to be mutated in 12% of glioblastomas. We assessed IDH1 mutations in 321 gliomas of various histological types and biological behaviors. A total of 130 IDH1 mutations was detected, and all were located at amino acid residue 132. Of these, 91% were G-->A mutations (Arg-->His). IDH1 mutations were frequent in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (88%) and in secondary glioblastomas that developed through progression from low-grade diffuse or anaplastic astrocytoma (82%). Similarly, high frequencies of IDH1 mutations were found in oligodendrogliomas (79%) and oligoastrocytomas (94%). Analyses of multiple biopsies from the same patient (51 cases) showed that there were no cases in which an IDH1 mutation occurred after the acquisition of either a TP53 mutation or loss of 1p/19q, suggesting that IDH1 mutations are very early events in gliomagenesis and may affect a common glial precursor cell population. IDH1 mutations were co-present with TP53 mutations in 63% of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and with loss of heterozygosity 1p/19q in 64% of oligodendrogliomas; they were rare in pilocytic astrocytomas (10%) and primary glioblastomas (5%) and absent in ependymomas. The frequent presence of IDH1 mutations in secondary glioblastomas and their near-complete absence in primary glioblastomas reinforce the concept that despite their histological similarities, these subtypes are genetically and clinically distinct entities.

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