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J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010 Apr;63(4):705-10. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2009.01.018. Epub 2009 Feb 25.

Protective effect of grape seed extract against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in a rat epigastricflap model.

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1st Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.


Proanthocyanidins are potent natural antioxidants which belong to a class of polyphenols. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts are prepared from grape seeds. The effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the viability of abdominal skin flaps exposed to warm ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion were studied in 40 male Wistar rats. In the control group (group I; n=20), rats were fed with standard, non-purified rat diet, and the study group received GSPE 100 mgkg(-1) per day 1 week prior to surgery and 1 week following surgery. Abdominal island flaps were elevated in both the groups and subjected to 8h of warm ischaemia, followed by reperfusion. Mean flap survival areas in groups I (control group) and II (treatment group) were calculated to be 58.3%+/-11.72 and 81.0%+/-11.88, respectively. Flap survival on day 7 was significantly higher in group II compared to group I (p<0.01). Histopathological semi-quantitative analysis of the specimens revealed infiltration by polymorphonuclear leucocytes, oedema formation and necrosis in group I, whereas neo-vascularisation and fibrosis were the prominent findings in group II.

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