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J Cardiometab Syndr. 2009 Winter;4(1):50-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-4572.2008.00034.x.

Prevalence and significance of cardiometabolic risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes.

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Section of Diabetes & Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, CMRI Diabetes and Metabolic Research Program, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common disease of childhood with a current prevalence of almost 2 cases per 1000 adolescents, according to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Modern insulin treatment has resulted in improved quality of life for children with this chronic disorder. However, T1D continues to carry a long-term burden of increased microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality risk. Compared to the nondiabetic population, patients with T1D are more likely to have >or=1 cardiovascular risk factor and often at an earlier age. Since the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors increases with age in young persons with T1D, there is a clear need for early screening and counseling to prevent their occurrence and manage long-term health ramifications. The purpose of this review is to describe how traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as an abnormal lipid profile, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis seen in young persons with T1D. A summary is given of the guidelines and recommendations published for clinical care for these patients.

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