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J Virol. 2009 May;83(10):4995-5004. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02225-08. Epub 2009 Feb 25.

Receptor-dependent and -independent axonal retrograde transport of poliovirus in motor neurons.

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Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.


Poliovirus (PV), when injected intramuscularly into the calf, is incorporated into the sciatic nerve and causes an initial paralysis of the inoculated limb in transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. We have previously demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerves of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralytic disease in an hPVR-dependent manner. Here we showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV was observed in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Using primary motor neurons (MNs) isolated from these mice or rats, we demonstrated that the axonal transport of PV requires several kinetically different motor machineries and that fast transport relies on a system involving cytoplasmic dynein. Unexpectedly, the hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV was not observed in cultured MNs. Thus, PV transport machineries in cultured MNs and in vivo differ in their hPVR requirements. These results suggest that the axonal trafficking of PV is carried out by several distinct pathways and that MNs in culture and in the sciatic nerve in situ are intrinsically different in the uptake and axonal transport of PV.

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