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FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2009 Mar;33(2):279-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00135.x.

Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance by two-component regulatory systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa ubiquitously inhabits soil and water habitats and also causes serious, often antibiotic resistant, infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g. cystic fibrosis). This versatility is mediated in part by a large repertoire of two-component regulatory systems that appear instrumental in the regulation of both virulence processes and resistance to antimicrobials. Major two-component regulatory system proteins demonstrated to regulate these diverse processes include PhoP-PhoQ, GacA-GacS, RetS, LadS, and AlgR, among others. Here, we summarize the current body of knowledge of these and other two-component systems that provides insight into the complex regulation of virulence and resistance in P. aeruginosa.

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