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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2009 Apr;44(5):423-42. doi: 10.1080/10934520902719704.

Nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol-A in the aquatic environment: a review on occurrence, fate, and treatment.

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Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida 32901, USA.


This paper reviews the current knowledge on the occurrence, biodegradation, and photooxidation of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol-A (BPA) in aquatic environment. Generally, the concentrations determined were 0.006-32.8, < 0.001-1.44, and 0.0005-4.0 mu g L(-1) for NP, OP, and BPA respectively in river waters worldwide. Anthropogenic activities that can lead to run-off and storm water discharge may contribute to such concentrations in rivers. Pathways for biodegradation of NP and BPA appear to be similar. The influence of ferric ions, oxalate, hydrogen peroxide, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the photooxidation of NP and BPA in natural water is presented. Several techniques including nanofiltration, adsorption, sonochemical, photocatalytic, chlorination, ozonation, and ferrate(VI) oxidation for removals of NP, OP, and BPA are also reviewed.

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