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J Urol. 2009 Apr;181(4):1665-71; discussion 1671. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.11.122. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Long-term outcomes in younger men following permanent prostate brachytherapy.

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The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, New York, USA.



We reviewed the long-term outcomes in men undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with a focus on those presenting before age 60 years.


Between 1992 and 2005 a total of 2,119 patients with clinical stage T1-T2, N0, M0 prostate cancer treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy were included in this study. Treatment regimens consisted of permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without hormone therapy, permanent prostate brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy, or all 3 modalities. Biochemical recurrence was defined using the Phoenix definition. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine if age and/or other clinicopathological features were associated with disease progression. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate rates of freedom from progression with the log rank test to compare patients younger than 60 vs 60 years or older.


Median followup was 56.1 months. In the study population 237 patients were younger than 60 years at diagnosis (11%). The 5 and 10-year freedom from progression rates were 90.1% and 85.6%, respectively, for the entire population. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that prostate specific antigen (p <0.01), biopsy Gleason score (p <0.0001) and year of treatment (p <0.001) were associated with freedom from progression while age (p = 0.95) and clinical stage (p = 0.11) were not. There was no significant difference in freedom from progression between men younger than 60, or 60 years or older (log rank p = 0.46). In the younger cohort the 10-year freedom from progression for patients presenting with low, intermediate and high risk disease was 91.3%, 80.0% and 70.2% compared to 91.8%, 83.4% and 72.1%, respectively, for men 60 years or older.


Our long-term results confirm favorable outcomes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in men younger than 60 years. Outcomes are impacted by disease related risk factors but not by age or clinical stage. Definitive treatment options for younger men with clinically localized prostate cancer should include permanent prostate brachytherapy.

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