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Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 1;48(7):988-91. doi: 10.1086/597353.

Sustained immunological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy at 36 months in a Ghanaian HIV cohort.

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  • 1School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.


Two hundred thirty-seven Ghanaian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were starting antiretroviral therapy underwent clinical and immunological monitoring for 3 years. Seventy-eight percent of patients had disease classified as World Health Organization stage III or IV. The mean increase in the CD4 cell count was 395 cells/mm(3), 13% of patients experienced immunological failure, and 8% of patients switched treatment to a second-line regimen. However, two-thirds of patients who experienced immunological failure did not switch treatment, and 31% of all patients were lost to follow-up.

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