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Adv Immunol. 2009;101:163-89. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2776(08)01005-5.

DNA targets of AID evolutionary link between antibody somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination.

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Genentech, Immunology Discovery Group, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.


As part of the adaptive immune response, B cells alter their functional immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor genes through somatic hypermutation (SHM) and/or class switch recombination (CSR) via processes that are initiated by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID). These genetic modifications are targeted at specific sequences known as Variable (V) and Switch (S) regions. Here, we analyze and review the properties and function of AID target sequences across species and compare them with non-Ig sequences, including known translocation hotspots. We describe properties of the S sequences, and discuss species and isotypic differences among S regions. Common properties of SHM and CSR target sequences suggest that evolution of S regions might involve the duplication and selection of SHM hotspots.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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