Send to

Choose Destination
Stroke. 2009 Apr;40(4):1212-8. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.531293. Epub 2009 Feb 19.

Incidence, types, risk factors, and outcome of stroke in a developing country: the Trivandrum Stroke Registry.

Author information

Department of Neurology, Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.



Despite increasing burden of stroke in developing countries, population-based data are rare. Through the Trivandrum Stroke Registry, we intend to assess incidence, types, risk factors, and outcome of stroke among urban and rural dwellers of a South Indian community.


We ascertained all first-ever strokes occurring among 741,000 urban and 185,000 rural inhabitants of Trivandrum, Kerala. In addition to Steps 1 and 2 of World Health Organization STEPS Stroke Manual, we used multiple supplementary methods to maximize ascertainment of nonfatal and nonhospitalized fatal stroke events in the community.


During a 6-month period, 541 strokes were registered, 431 in the urban and 110 in the rural communities. Stroke occurred at a median age of 67 years; only 3.8% of patients were aged <or=40 years. Adjusted annual incidence rates per 100,000 were 135 (95% confidence interval 123 to 146) for total, 135 (122-148) for urban, and 138 (112-164) for rural populations, and 74.8 (66.3 to 83.2), 10.1 (7.0 to 13.2), and 4.2 (2.2 to 6.1) for ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. There was more stroke of undetermined type in the rural community. One or more modifiable risk factors were identified in 90% patients. More rural male patients smoked tobacco. The 28th day case fatality rate was 24.5% for urban and 37.1% for rural populations (P=0.011).


There are more similarities than differences between developing and developed countries in the epidemiology of stroke. Compared to urban stroke patients, rural ones are less likely to be optimally investigated and treated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center