Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Br J Sports Med. 2009 Jun;43(6):392-400. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.050799. Epub 2009 Feb 17.

The anticipatory regulation of performance: the physiological basis for pacing strategies and the development of a perception-based model for exercise performance.

Author information

UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa.


During self-paced exercise, the exercise work rate is regulated by the brain based on the integration of numerous signals from various physiological systems. It has been proposed that the brain regulates the degree of muscle activation and thus exercise intensity specifically to prevent harmful physiological disturbances. It is presently proposed how the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is generated as a result of the numerous afferent signals during exercise and serves as a mediator of any subsequent alterations in skeletal muscle activation levels and exercise intensity. A conceptual model for how the RPE mediates feedforward, anticipatory regulation of exercise performance is proposed, and this model is applied to previously described research studies of exercise in various conditions, including heat, hypoxia and reduced energy substrate availability. Finally, the application of this model to recent novel studies that altered pacing strategies and performance is described utilising an RPE clamp design, central nervous system drugs and the provision of inaccurate duration or distance feedback to exercising athletes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center