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J Nucl Med. 2009 Mar;50(3):401-8. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.108.056374. Epub 2009 Feb 17.

Performance evaluation of the inveon dedicated PET preclinical tomograph based on the NEMA NU-4 standards.

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David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.


The Inveon dedicated PET (DPET) scanner is the latest generation of preclinical PET systems devoted to high-resolution and high-sensitivity murine model imaging. In this study, we report on its performance based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 standards.


The Inveon DPET consists of 64 lutetium oxyorthosilicate block detectors arranged in 4 contiguous rings, with a 16.1-cm ring diameter and a 12.7-cm axial length. Each detector block consists of a 20 x 20 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal array of 1.51 x 1.51 x 10.0 mm elements. The scintillation light is transmitted to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes via optical light guides. Energy resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and counting-rate performance were evaluated. The NEMA NU-4 image-quality phantom and a healthy mouse injected with (18)F-FDG and (18)F(-) were scanned to evaluate the imaging capability of the Inveon DPET.


The energy resolution at 511 keV was 14.6% on average for the entire system. In-plane radial and tangential resolutions reconstructed with Fourier rebinning and filtered backprojection algorithms were below 1.8-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at the center of the field of view. The radial and tangential resolution remained under 2.0 mm, and the axial resolution remained under 2.5-mm FWHM within the central 4-cm diameter of the field of view. The absolute sensitivity of the system was 9.3% for an energy window of 250-625 keV and a timing window of 3.432 ns. At a 350- to 625-keV energy window and a 3.432-ns timing window, the peak noise equivalent counting rate was 1,670 kcps at 130 MBq for the mouse-sized phantom and 590 kcps at 110 MBq for the rat-sized phantom. The scatter fractions at the same acquisition settings were 7.8% and 17.2% for the mouse- and rat-sized phantoms, respectively. The mouse image-quality phantom results demonstrate that for typical mouse acquisitions, the image quality correlates well with the measured performance parameters in terms of image uniformity, recovery coefficients, attenuation, and scatter corrections.


The Inveon system, compared with previous generations of preclinical PET systems from the same manufacturer, shows significantly improved energy resolution, sensitivity, axial coverage, and counting-rate capabilities. The performance of the Inveon is suitable for successful murine model imaging experiments.

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