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J Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 1;199(7):1087-96. doi: 10.1086/597274.

Bypassing pathogen-induced inflammasome activation for the regulation of interleukin-1beta production by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Erratum in

  • J Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 1;199(11):1716.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Interleukin (IL)-1beta has an important role in antifungal defense mechanisms. The inflammasome is thought to be required for caspase-1 activation and processing of the inactive precursor pro-IL-1beta. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathways of IL-1beta production induced by Candida albicans in human monocytes.

METHODS:

Human mononuclear cells were stimulated with C. albicans or mutant strains defective in mannosylation or chitin. Receptors were blocked with specific antagonists, and the IL-1beta concentration was measured.

RESULTS:

Human primary monocytes produce bioactive IL-1beta when stimulated with C. albicans. The transcription of IL-1beta was induced through mannose receptor (MR), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and dectin-1 but not through TLR4 and TLR9. N-mannan-linked residues, chitin, and beta-glucan from C. albicans are important for IL-1beta stimulation. Surprisingly, processing and secretion of IL-1beta in monocytes did not require pathogen-mediated inflammasome activation, because of the constitutive activation of caspase-1 and the capability of monocytes to release endogenous adenosine-5'-triphosphate.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study is the first dissection of the molecular mechanisms of IL-1beta production by a fungal pathogen. Transcription through mannan/chitin/MR and beta-glucan/dectin-1/TLR2 induces production of IL-1beta by C. albicans in human monocytes, whereas processing of IL-1beta is mediated by constitutively active caspase-1.

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