Send to

Choose Destination
Angiogenesis. 2009;12(2):159-64. doi: 10.1007/s10456-009-9135-7. Epub 2009 Feb 17.

Role of endothelial progenitors and other bone marrow-derived cells in the development of the tumor vasculature.

Author information

Division of Cancer and Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR-South, Rm1255, Stanford, CA 94305-5152, USA.


Increasing evidence suggests the importance of bone marrow-derived cells for blood vessel formation (neovascularization) in tumors, which can occur in two mechanisms: angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Angiogenesis results from proliferation and sprouting of existing blood vessels close to the tumor, while vasculogenesis is believed to arise from recruitment of circulating cells, largely derived from the bone marrow, and de novo clonal formation of blood vessels from these cells. Although bone marrow-derived cells are crucial for neovascularization, current evidence suggests a promotional role of these cells on the existing blood vessels rather than de novo neovascularization in tumors. This is believed to be due to the highly proangiogenic features of these cells. The bone marrow-derived cells are heterogeneous, consisting of many different cell types including endothelial progenitor cells, myeloid cells, lymphocytes, and mesenchymal cells. These cells are highly orchestrated under the influence of the specific tumor microenvironment, which varies depending on the tumor type, thereby tightly regulating neovascularization in the tumors. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on each of these cell types by outlining some of the essential proangiogenic cytokines that these cells secrete to promote tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center