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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Jan;15(1):29-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02130.x.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

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Institute of Respiratory Diseases, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore, Milan, Italy.


Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection is ubiquitous. It accounts for 10% of community-acquired pneumonias and 5% of cases of pharyngitis, bronchitis and sinusitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. It is also involved in exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and asthma. Moreover, C. pneumoniae has been reported as a possible cause of atherosclerosis and central nervous system disorders. The current reference standard for serological diagnosis of acute infection is microimmunofluorescence testing, although molecular detection techniques may well become reference diagnostic tests in the near future. Tetracyclines and erythromycin show good in vitro activity, and so far have been the most commonly employed drugs in the treatment of C. pneumoniae infection. New macrolides, ketolides and fluoroquinolones are other potentially effective drugs. This review analyses the most recent data concerning the involvement of C. pneumoniae in human diseases.

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