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Protoplasma. 2009 Mar;235(1-4):3-15. doi: 10.1007/s00709-009-0032-0. Epub 2009 Feb 15.

Peroxiredoxins: a less studied component of hydrogen peroxide detoxification in photosynthetic organisms.

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Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali, 304022, Rajasthan, India.


Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases capable of reducing a broad range of toxic peroxides and peroxinitrites. A cysteinyl residue of peroxiredoxins reacts with the peroxides as primary catalytic center and oxidizes to sulfenic acid. The regeneration of the reduced form of Prx is required as a next step to allow its entry into next catalytic cycle. Several proteins, such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, cyclophilin, among others, are known to facilitate the regeneration of the reduced (catalytically active) form of Prx in plants. Based on the cysteine residues conserved in the deduced amino acid sequence and their catalytic mechanisms, four groups of peroxiredoxins have been distinguished in plants, namely, 1-Cys Prx, 2-Cys Prx, Type II Prx and Prx Q. Peroxiredoxins are known to play an important role in combating the reactive oxygen species generated at the level of electron transport activities in the plant exposed to different types of biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition to their role in antioxidant defense mechanisms in plants, they also modulate redox signaling during development and adaptation. Besides these general properties, peroxiredoxins have been shown to protect DNA from damage in vitro and in vivo. They also regulate metabolism in thylakoids and mitochondria. The present review summarizes the most updated information on the structure and catalysis of Prx and their functional importance in plant metabolism.

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