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Neuroscience. 2009 Apr 21;160(1):51-60. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.02.013. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors and NAD(P)H mediate Ca2+ signaling required for hypoxic preconditioning of hippocampal neurons.

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1
Department of Anesthesia, University of California at San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Sciences 255, Box 0542, San Francisco, CA 94143-0542, USA. bicklerp@anesthesia.ucsf.edu

Abstract

Exposure of neurons to a non-lethal hypoxic stress greatly reduces cell death during subsequent severe ischemia (hypoxic preconditioning, HPC). In organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus, we demonstrate that HPC requires inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggered by increased cytosolic NAD(P)H. Ca2+ chelation with intracellular BAPTA, ER Ca2+ store depletion with thapsigargin, IP3 receptor block with xestospongin, and RNA interference against subtype 1 of the IP3 receptor all blunted the moderate increases in [Ca2+](i) (50-100 nM) required for tolerance induction. Increases in [Ca2+](i) during HPC and neuroprotection following HPC were not prevented with NMDA receptor block or by removing Ca2+ from the bathing medium. Increased NAD(P)H fluorescence in CA1 neurons during hypoxia and demonstration that NADH manipulation increases [Ca2+](i) in an IP3R-dependent manner revealed a primary role of cellular redox state in liberation of Ca2+ from the ER. Blockade of IP3Rs and intracellular Ca2+ chelation prevented phosphorylation of known HPC signaling targets, including MAPK p42/44 (ERK), protein kinase B (Akt) and CREB. We conclude that the endoplasmic reticulum, acting via redox/NADH-dependent intracellular Ca2+ store release, is an important mediator of the neuroprotective response to hypoxic stress.

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