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Structure. 2009 Feb 13;17(2):172-82. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2009.01.001.

Wheel of Life, Wheel of Death: A Mechanistic Insight into Signaling by STAND Proteins.

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Institut Pasteur, Molecular Genetics Unit and CNRS URA2172, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.


The signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) represent a newly recognized class of widespread, sophisticated ATPases that are related to the AAA+ proteins and that function as signaling hubs. These proteins control diverse biological processes in bacteria and eukaryotes, including gene expression, apoptosis, and innate immunity responses. They function as tightly regulated switches, with the off and on positions corresponding to a long-lived monomeric, ADP-bound form and a multimeric, ATP-bound form, respectively. Inducer binding to the sensor domain activates the protein by promoting ADP for ATP exchange, probably through removal of an intramolecular inhibitory interaction, whereas ATP hydrolysis turns off the protein. One key component of the switch is a three-domain module carrying the ATPase activity (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]). Analysis of the atomic structures of four crystallized nucleotide-bound NOD modules provides an unprecedented insight into the NOD conformational changes underlying the activation process.

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